The law essentially consists of a set of rules that are created and enforced by a particular country or community through social or governmental institutions to regulate the actions of its members.
India has a federal judicial system that is mainly based on mixed law, i. H. On parliamentary legislation, court laws, customary and religious laws. The Indian judicial system is developed by judges through their decisions, orders and judgments.
There are five types of legal systems; H. civil law; Common law; Common law; Religious law and mixed law.
Kinds of laws
There are four types of laws in the Indian judicial system.
1. Criminal law
The police enforce criminal law. Cases such as murder, rape, assault, robbery are subject to criminal prosecution. Offenses committed against an individual but directed against everyone, even if they are not, are covered by criminal law.
For example, if a house is broken into, the theft is against the person, but it threatens all homeowners because they may have broken into their houses. Given that everyone is at risk of crime, this law is dealt with by public services rather than private investigators.
2. Civil law
Civil law is a law that deals with acts that are not crime. It is a legal section that deals with disputes between organizations and individuals. It covers various areas such as defamation, child custody, right to education, divorce, union membership, property disputes, property issues, copyright, insurance claims, etc.
For example, one person has forcibly taken another person’s property without their permission and has not vacated it, or one company is suing another company for a trade dispute or car accident claimed by the driver for loss or injury in an accident.
3. Common law
Common law, also known as case law or precedent or judicial law, is a section of law that is derived from the judicial decision of courts and similar courts. As the name suggests, it is common to everyone. The example of higher courts is binding for cases that are heard in lower courts. Lower courts can also choose to override the precedent, but this rarely happens.
An example of a common law marriage is when two people have lived together for 10 or more years. You therefore have the legal right to share your assets.
4. Legal law
Law or legal right is a law that is established by a law of the legislature that is signed by the executive or the legislature. For state law, the laws are passed by the state parliament and signed by the state governor. In rare cases, the executive (president or governor) may refuse or refuse to sign the draft law, which is known as a “veto”.
A legislative proposal is proposed and voted on in the legislature. For example, you will receive a quote for violating the speed limit that you have violated a vehicle and traffic law.