How school and higher education changes according to the National Education Policy 2020
NEP 2020 is the first educational policy of the 21st century and replaces the 34-year-old National Education Policy (NPE) from 1986.

This policy aims to transform India into a vibrant, knowledge-based society that makes both school and higher education more holistic, flexible, multidisciplinary, tailored to the needs of the 21st century, and aimed at highlighting each student’s unique skills.

The main features of the directive are as follows


Ensuring universal access at all school levels from preschool to 12th grade

NEP 2020 aims to achieve a gross enrollment rate of 100% in school education by 2030.

Early childhood care

NEP 2020 emphasizes the criticality of the early years in order to ensure high quality early childhood care and education for all children between 3 and 6 years by 2025. The children from 3 to 5 years are cared for by the current system of Anganwadis and Pre-schools from 5 to 6 years are seamlessly integrated into the school system.

New curriculum and pedagogical structure

With a focus on early childhood care and education, the 10 + 2 structure of school curricula should be replaced by a 5 + 3 + 3 + 4 curriculum structure that corresponds to age groups 3-8, 8-11, 11-14 and 14-. 18 years each.

The new system will have 12 years of schooling with three years of Anganwadi / pre-school.

The new system will cover four phases:

* Elementary level (in two parts, ie 3 years Anganwadi / preschool + 2 years elementary school in classes 1 to 2; both together for ages 3 to 8 years),

* Preparation phase (grades 3-5, ages 8-11)

* Intermediate (grades 6-8, ages 11-14) and

* Secondary (grades 9-12 in two phases, i.e. 9 and 10 in the first and 11 and 12 in the second, for ages 14-18).

Students have greater flexibility and choice of subjects so that they can choose their own path based on their talents and interests. There will be no rigid divisions between art and science, between curricular and extracurricular activities, between professional and academic trends. The aim is to take all subjects – science, social sciences, art, languages, sports, mathematics – into account equally – including professional and academic trends in school.

Multilingualism and the power of language

The teaching medium up to at least the 5th grade, but preferably up to the 8th grade and beyond, is the mother tongue / mother tongue / national language / regional language.

Sanskrit is offered at all school and university levels as an important, enriching option for students, also as an option in the trilingual formula. Other Indian classical languages ​​and literatures, including Tamil, Telugu, Kannada, Malayalam, Odia, Pali, Persian, and Prakrit, will also be widely used in schools as student options.

Foreign languages ​​such as Korean, Japanese, Thai, French, German, Spanish, Portuguese and Russian are also offered at the secondary level.

Indian Sign Language (ISL) is being standardized across the country and national and state curriculum materials are being developed for hearing-impaired students.

Assessment reforms

Board exams for grades 10 and 12 is continued but reformed to remove the need to attend coaching courses. The board exams are redesigned to promote holistic development. and also becomes “easier” by testing the core capacities / competencies.

All students may take up to two board exams during a school year, one major and one for improvement if desired.

All students will go to school
Exams in classes 3, 5 and 8 which is carried out by the competent authority.

A new national rating center,
PARAKH (Performance assessment, review and analysis of knowledge for holistic development) is set up as a standardization body for the establishment of norms, standards and guidelines for the assessment and assessment of students for all recognized Indian school authorities.

Each state / district is asked to settle
“Bal Bhavans” as a special day boarding school for participation in art-related, career-related and playful activities.

Recruitment of teachers and career path

Teachers are hired through robust, transparent processes. The promotions will be performance-based and a mechanism for regular performance reviews from multiple sources will be established. Paths of advancement are available to teachers to become educational administrators or teacher trainers.

Vocational training

By 2025, at least 50% of learners in the school and university system will have to be exposed to vocational training. Starting with occupational exposure at a young age in middle and secondary school, high quality vocational training is smoothly integrated into higher education.


Increase GER in higher education to reach at least 50% by 2035.

The goal is to increase the gross enrollment rate in higher education, including vocational training, from 26.3% (2018) to 50% by 2035.

Multidisciplinary training

Provision of multidisciplinary, holistic training at Bachelor’s level for integrated, strict contact with the natural sciences, arts, humanities, mathematics and professional fields with imaginative and flexible curriculum structures, creative combinations of studies, integration of vocational training and several entry / exit points.

The bachelor’s degree will be either 3 or 4.Duration of the year with multiple exit options within this period, with appropriate certifications – a certificate after completing one year in a discipline or area, including professional and professional areas, or a diploma after two years of study or a bachelor’s degree after three years of program.

Academic credit bank (ABC) is set up in which the academic credits earned by various recognized universities are stored digitally so that the degrees of a university can be awarded taking into account the credits earned.

Model public universities for holistic and multidisciplinary education, multidisciplinary education and research universities (
MERUs) is established and aims to achieve the highest standards for multidisciplinary education across India.

Universities and colleges will set up quality support centers and will receive adequate resources and academic resources to encourage and support students with a socio-economically disadvantaged background. Professional academic and professional advice is available to all students and advisors to ensure physical, psychological and emotional well-being.

National Research Foundation (NRF)

A new unit is created to catalyze and expand research and innovation across the country. The NRF will fund research in all disciplines in a competitive manner.

Financial support for students

Efforts are being made to incentivize the earnings of students belonging to SC, ST, OBC and other SEDGs. The National Scholarship Portal will be expanded to support, promote, and track the progress of students receiving scholarships. Private universities are encouraged to offer their students a larger number of free ships and scholarships.

Open and distance learning is expanded and thus plays an important role in increasing the gross enrollment rate to 50%.

Motivated, energetic and capable faculty

NEP 2020 recognizes that the success of higher education institutions depends on the quality and commitment of their faculty. The universities have clearly defined, independent and transparent processes and criteria for the recruitment of teachers. Faculties that fail to meet basic norms will be held accountable.

Effective governance and leadership in universities

Through a suitable system of graded accreditation and graded autonomy and gradually over a period of 15 years, all universities in India want to become independent, self-governing institutions that strive for innovation and excellence.


There will be a single umbrella body for the promotion of higher education – the Indian Higher Education Commission (HECI) – with independent bodies for setting standards – the General Education Council; Funding Council for University Scholarships (HEGC); Accreditation – National Accreditation Council (NAC); and regulation – National Higher Education Regulatory Council (NHERC).

Teacher training

The 4-year integrated stage-specific, subject-specific Bachelor of Education offered at multidisciplinary institutions would be the way forward. By 2030, the minimum qualification for teaching will be a 4-year integrated B.Ed. Degree.

Vocational training

All vocational training will be an integral part of the higher education system. Independent technical universities, health science universities, law and agricultural universities or institutions in these or other areas should become multidisciplinary institutions.

Technology in education

An autonomous institution, the National Educational Technology Forum (NETF), will be created to provide a platform for the free exchange of ideas on the use of technology to improve learning, assessment, planning and management.

Online education and digital education

A comprehensive set of recommendations to promote online education as a result of the recent increase in epidemics and pandemics to ensure readiness for alternative forms of quality education whenever and wherever traditional and personal forms of education are not possible have been addressed.

Adult education

The policy aims to achieve 100% literacy among young people and adults by 2030.

Promotion of Indian languages

More universities and more programs in the higher education sector will use the mother tongue / national language as a teaching medium and / or offer programs in two languages.

An Indian Institute for Translation and Interpreting (IITI) is established. Sanskrit and all Indian language institutes and departments across the country will be significantly strengthened.

Fund education

All educational institutions are subject to similar auditing and disclosure standards as nonprofit organizations. The center and the states will work together to raise public investment in the education sector to 6% of GDP at the earliest.


New Education Policy 2020: Teachers from Jadavpur University and Calcutta University criticize NEP – Education

Previous article

New educational policy discusses the national language as mother tongue as the language of instruction “wherever possible” – education

Next article

You may also like


Leave a reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *